The blog formerly known as   Fake Plastic Fish

April 12, 2011

BPA-Free Does Not Mean Safe. Most Plastics Leach Hormone-Disrupting Chemicals.

Which plastics are safe?  I get that question all the time. The Internet is full of charts listing the numbers of the various types of plastic and explaining which ones are safe and which ones are not.  Supposedly, #2 (high density polyethylene), #4 (low density polyethylene), and #5 (polypropylene) are safe, right?  Does that mean the lid on my travel mug is safe?  It’s #5 polypropylene.

stainless steel travel mug with polypropylene lid

So is the sport cap on Michael’s Klean Kanteen water bottle.

Klean Kanteen water bottle with plastic sport cap

We’re supposed to avoid plastics #3 (PVC), #6 (polystyrene), and #7 (polycarbonate). Polycarbonate is the plastic that is made from the chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA). And BPA has a bad rap because it’s a hormone-disruptor. Walk down the aisles of any drug store these days, and you’ll find rows of plastic products labelled BPA-Free.  BPA-Free water bottles…

BPA-free water bottle

Baby bottles…

BPA-free baby bottle

Pacifiers…

BPA-free pacifier

In fact, entire shelves of baby products are labelled BPA-free.  Are they safe?

BPA-free baby products

Plastic #1 (polyethylene terephthalate), the type of plastic that disposable water bottles are made of, is not made with BPA either. Is it okay to drink from?

cases of bottled water

My response: we can’t be sure any plastic is safe as long as we don’t know what chemicals are in the plastic and as long as those chemicals have not been tested.  I’ve said this over and over again.  And I’ve pointed out chemical additives that have been found to leach from “safe” plastics like polypropylene.

Now, a University of Texas study published last month in Environmental Health Perspectives confirms that hormone-disrupting chemicals leach from almost all plastics, even BPA-free plastics.

That study?  Is 33 pages.  I read the whole thing, so you don’t have to.

BPA is not the only chemical with Estrogenic Activity

BPA concerns us because it has Estrogenic Activity (EA), meaning it mimics the hormone estrogen in the body. According to the study authors, chemicals with EA have been linked to all kinds of health problems, including

early puberty in females, reduced sperm counts, altered functions of reproductive organs, obesity, altered sex-specific behaviors, and increased rates of some breast, ovarian, testicular, and prostate cancers.

Theorizing that BPA was not the only EA chemical, the authors of the study tested 455 everyday products of all different kinds of plastic from various retail sources to determine if they had estrogenic effects. Products included food wrap, deli containers, hard or flexible packaging, plastic bags, baby bottles, and reusable plastic water bottles. Most of these products were BPA-free.  But what other chemicals were in them?  Just like you and I, the researchers didn’t know.  We are, after all, talking about the plastics industry and their secrets.

The exact chemical composition of almost any commercially available plastic part is proprietary and not known. A single part may consist of 5-30 chemicals, and a plastic item containing many parts (e.g., a baby bottle) may consist of 100 or more chemicals, almost all of which can leach from the product, especially when stressed.

So, to test the products they had gathered, the researchers first extracted chemicals from the various plastic products using different solvents to mimic the types of foods/beverages the plastics might contain, and then they exposed those extracted plastic chemicals to MCF-7 cells, a type of human breast cancer cell that is receptive to estrogen. If the cells multiplied in the presence of the leached plastic chemicals, the researchers knew those chemicals were estrogenic and therefore potentially harmful to humans.

Their finding? Almost all of the plastic products tested leached EA chemicals.

Almost all commercially available plastic products we sampled, independent of the type of resin, product, or retail source, leached chemicals having reliably-detectable EA, including those advertised as BPA-free. In some cases, BPA-free products released chemicals having more EA than BPA-containing products.

Stressed Out Plastic is Even Worse

Realizing that plastics are more likely to leach chemicals when exposed to various stressors like heat or light, the researchers also tested the products after subjecting them to UV radiation (mimicking the effect of sunlight), wet heat (as in a dishwasher), and microwave radiation. As you might expect, there was more leaching of EA from stressed plastic products than from unstressed ones. In fact, in some cases, products with no detectable EA levels when unstressed were found to release EA chemicals after being roughed up a bit. Wouldn’t you?

The Point: it’s not enough for a company to test its products in an unstressed environment.  Only by exposing plastic products to the kinds of stressors it will be subjected to in real life can we know for sure whether it will leach EA chemicals or not.

Bio-Based Plastics Like PLA are Not Exempt

PLA is a kind of compostable plastic made from starch, usually corn. It’s generally touted by its manufacturers as safe simply because it doesn’t come from petroleum. So guess what. 71% of all the PLA samples tested were found to leach EA chemicals as well.

The Point: just because a plastic is made from plants doesn’t make it safe.

It’s in the Additives

The researchers also tested “barefoot” polymers, meaning pellets of the basic plastic before any other chemicals have been added to it.  And while a few of these barefoot plastics (#2, #4, and #5) did not leach EA chemicals by themselves, nearly all commercial products made from these plastics did.   It’s those darned secret additives!

The Point: it’s not enough for a company to tell you that a certain type of plastic (#2, #4, #5) is safe.  Without knowing what additives are in it, we don’t know what could be leaching out.

Some BPA Replacements are WORSE than BPA

The researchers tested baby bottles made from PES (polyethersulfone), a new plastic being used to replace BPA in hard plastic bottles.  Among others, Born Free brand bottles are made from PES.  What did they find?  Some PES baby bottles released more EA chemicals than those with BPA in them!

The researchers also tested water bottles made from PETG, a copolyester like the new Eastman Tritan which has replaced BPA water bottles.  Again, EA chemicals were found to leach from those bottles as well.

As for our good old #1 PET disposable water/soda bottles?  Big time EA leaching.

The Point: be skeptical of new plastics being developed to replace harmful ones.  And remain skeptical of old plastics too.

Are There Any Safe Plastics?

One of the study researchers works for a company called PlastiPure, which is working to develop EA-free plastics.  To do that, the company hopes to create an EA-free supply chain, requiring that all the chemicals that are added to plastics be certified EA-free as well.  Their WaterGeeks plastic water bottle is advertised as EA-free.

I had a conversation with Brent Meikle from PlastiPure last year.  I asked why go to all the trouble to develop a “safe” plastic bottle when they could just promote stainless steel or glass instead.  Brent’s feeling was that it was not practical to expect everyone to switch to stainless steel bottles, especially those involved in sports, and that plastics are here to stay, so they should be safe.

Whether or not the new EA-free plastics are safe or whether they will turn out to have other harmful health effects, the fact remains that like all petroleum-based plastics, they are not biodegradable and will cause harm to the environment when not handled properly.  I hope that PlastiPure will continue to focus on making durable plastic products rather than single-use disposables.

As for me, I’m going to stick to my stainless steel travel mug and water bottle.  No plastic water bottles for me.  But as for my plastic lid?  If it has to be plastic, I’d rather it were EA-free.

The Point: we can only act on the information we have at the moment.  Ask questions.  Remain skeptical.  But keep an open mind.

 

This post is included in the March 2012 Green Moms Carnival on toxic chemicals hosted at Groovy Green Livin’.

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Franky

Purple mattresses is running g this huge as campaign making people want to buy these plastic beds, they’re definitely not safe

Angela Broadbent

So I’m guessing you also avoid any food with soy. It being a major endocrine disruptor, as well.

Gv

What’s your view on plastics leaching onto water you’re not actually drinking? Thinking about PC or PVC swimming pool covers which float on the pool’s water and are subject to a lot of heat/UV stress. Would that be a concern for you?

Mista

Since 97′ our SHOES have become equally as plastic…having gone from 100% cotton lining & inner soles to totally synthetic…from Made in Korea to China & the sizes are really OFF & the heat I get from wearing synthetics vs cotton is HUGE!! Synthetics make my feet feel like they are on fire & I would bet that the LEACHING & length of time on a persons feet is what can trigger hypersensitivity..I have searched high & low since 2006 for studies to better prove this but haven’t yet found anything but that plastics/petroleum leach out & on to your… Read more »

Charles L

So if I am forced to use plastic, which leaches the least, stressed or unstressed?

David H

“I read the whole thing so you don’t have to”. What a bunch of nonsense. Anyone saying this wants you to listen to them instead of thinking for yourself, and usually has an agenda to push.

Quote from the study:

“our data suggest that almost all commercially available plastic items would leach detectable amounts of chemicals having EA once such items are exposed to boiling water, sunlight (UV), and/or microwaving.”

So, if you don’t microwave or boil the damn thing you’ll be fine!

stalin

this sounds like Communist propaganda to me

John

I’m not doubting the dangers of plastics, but I mean, EVERYTHING comes in plastic in one form of another, from yogurt and cheese to bread to … So it’s not really avoidable. I find the alarm over the lid of your water jug to be kinda moot given that literally 99% of the foods in your home are packed in plastics. Also, your recaptcha is broken.

Anne

Hi Beth,
Thank you for this great article! I am about to start food prepping and will begin with plastic containers and invest in the more expensive glass ones further ahead. Thanks to you I will NOT place them in dishwasher (have to wash with warm water, though :( but will make sure the exposure time is short) or microwave. I wonder, does refrigerating/freezing also make them release EA? Thanks, Anne

Bob Robinson

This is a bit dated and I’m wondering if there are updates are newer perspectives from you or someone you trust about the plastics you talk about. It really is confusing trying to live without plastic, especially when you are 69 years old and trying to reconcile all the conflicting information on the Internet.

Cynthia Salkowski

Confusing… on the bottom of some “oxo” plastic storage containers the #7 is in a triangle but also “bpa” in a circle with a line going through it. So which is it? BPA free or not?

J L Shaw

With all due respect, [CITATION NEEDED] for the major claims in this article about EA discovered by researchers.

Industrial Engineer entering the field of Bio-plastics

Erica unger

What is a good product to buy water 5 gallon at a time and use in one of those common ( whole foods type ) dispensers?
Any yogurt sold in not – plastic?
Wishing we were more plastic free.
Thanks, Erica

Benaceur

What fo you think about wheat straw plastic ?

Confused.

This article stresses me out. While I completely agree that all plastics are unsafe, I think we can only avoid them to a certain extent. I have spent the last few months trying to rid of bad chemicals in my home. From throwing out all my cleaning products and using Norwex, to putting an end to buying plastic water bottles (which in my home we were so bad for) and spending good money on Klean Kanteen bottles… which I thought those were safe, now I’m second guessing the lids. My daughter is 2 1/2 and I feel awful for the… Read more »

Maggie

This is my concern regarding using stainless steel in place of plastic. Without a Geiger counter, how can one be sure? https://www.seattletimes.com/nation-world/the-growing-global-threat-of-radioactive-scrap-metal/

roy

I used avent polypropelene baby bottles and also sterlized them in hot water everyday..now im worried if they would have leached any chemicals..philips says it doesnt..can u plz tell me if it would have leached Estrogen mimicking chemicals..plz tell me…

Rose

What can one do when traveling? I will soon be heading away for a week, and we usually buy a case or two of water when we get there. The thought of giving my child bottled water from a plastic bottle is making shivers go down my spine. So, I’m genuinely curious if you have any solutions on what to do while traveling so we can have safe, drinkable water. Additionally, I read below that you had a bladder mesh installed. How are you? My mother is due to have this procedure next week! I am now concerned about this… Read more »

Brooke

Hi, Do you know labs that will test products for EA? I’m curious about a few products on the market, as well as one I manufacture! I’d love to have it tested to make sure it’s safe. Let me know if you have any leads on labs!

Gabriella Dsouza

I poured a 201 degrees Fahrenheit liquid in a polypropylene cup and I noticed a few tiny white bubbles. The cup became a little soft too. I drank it anyway. Was the plastic letting out toxins? Is it dangerous?

Jan

Is there a way to store homemade liquid food (soup for instance) in one’s refrigerator freezer without plastic?

dwdq

I found random this site. And I maybe say there no 100% safe plastic, maybe bio-plastics are better? But we must test them. There is list of even safe plastics:
1.pp
2.hdpe-“most safe”
3.ldpe
But all todays plastic are not NATURAL, like wood, glass etc.
Problem is plastic is everywhere, you can only avoid it and do clean oout off toxics. And what about ro filter? Its plastic!(maybe hdpe) I wish I could buy metal?
And you know what bpa can be found in wall paints, walls, so its hard to avoid-go live in the forest

Daniel from Poland

Ray

Water bottles labeled #5 have to be the worst smelling plastic. I have an Oko bottle (I don’t use) that transfers the nasty plastic smell into the water. I call it a cancel bottle. No way these should be sold to anyone. Thanks for your info.

[…] have to rethink the whole scenario. As this link shows there are many other chemicals in plastic that can also be […]

Melinda

Thank you for this article! I didn’t have so much faith in plastic before, but thought that 2,4 and 5 are OK. From now on I am going to toss them also and use only glass and stainless steel. Thank you also for the link of the study. It is really eye-opening.

Phil

Just wanted to clarify one thing: recycling code #7 does not mean polycarbonate.

#7 means “other” as in “any plastic that isnt 1-6”. While PC falls into this category, so do many other plastics, both supposedly safe and definitely unsafe.

In other words #7 means “you should get more info on specifics”

Adel

Are HydroFlask bottles safe?

mrocha

I recently bought an organic crib mattress from Naturepedic but I am still struggling with the fact that it contains Food-Grade Polyethylene. The cover is organic cotton with water proof polyethylene and inside instead of coils (which I decided to avoid as they can act as an antena for radiation) it has a patented wavesupport technology made from pure food-grade polyethylene and batting of organic kapok and organic cotton. The mattress sheet is also organic cotton. How safe is this type of plastic? Or am I exposing them to some sort of endocrine disrupters, chemicals or toxins? Any information will… Read more »

Juda Filippi

It’s fine if she doesn’t eat it.

Tanya

I would also like to know any thoughts on this as I have a naturepedic changing pad… thanks!

Neon Argentus

Nice article, except: You used “researchers” 8 times but there is no a single reference to any of those researchers. It would be a “bingo point” if you add them here.

AK AH

Yeah this supposed study has no link anywhere in the article…a good way to instantly self destruct the article’s credibility.

Kristie Ingram

First you have to know where your research is coming from. I would trust independent labs but I find it hard to trust government funded labs !!

Phil

Thanks for not listing a single actual name of any of the supposed other EA’s (besides BPA). I like it when things stay unsubstantiated at my level (somebody just reading a blog that has all they need to know in one place), and as for that paper, it helps that you read the whole thing, so I don’t have to.

Darlene

most metal containers are lined with plastic

marla

I want to be sure of one thing, is PET okay to use for homemade products, since it is not being digested in any way? Floor cleaning etc?

Darris

My 20 year-old son has a hernia and is scheduled for surgery in about 3 weeks. They want to use a polypropylene mesh in the repair. I’ve read the pros/cons of using mesh but can’t get past that it’s PLASTIC and they’re implanting it in his body for the rest of his life! Have you come across anything substantial about polypropylene in the body Beth?

Jackie

I have polypropylene mesh for a bladder repair from 2005. Haven’t been well since. I’m convinced it is the plastic starting to break down in my body after all these years of being attacked by my body’s immune response. My liver and kidneys are a bit stressed and I have no idea why as I am otherwise a healthy person. I hope your son is ok

Brittany

I’m looking for a safe plastic bottle for my
Baby. (We are not able to use glass) I came across the “Joovy Boob PPSU” http://joovy.com/boob-baby-bottle-ppsu/
Is PPSU plastic considered safe?

Juda Filippi

I used glass bottles when my kiddos were useable. Not one ever broke even whe I dropped them, but I still had to watch to make sure they didn’t break .

Tonya

I am looking to buy a crib mattress for my baby that is the best mattress to prevent SIDS and is non toxic because it does not contain the toxic chemicals that standard, and even organic, crib mattresses have. It is basically an open wood box with a spacer fabric sheet that lays on top. So it is completely hollow with no fillings, hence the avoidance of many chemicals. But the wooden base has a plastic inner lining made from recycled milk jugs, polypropylene #5. This polypropylene base lies 5 inches below the sleep surface and there is nothing between… Read more »

Laura

I was worried about toxins in mattresses too. We have twins and could not afford to buy latex crib mattresses. I finally made my own zippered covers and bought a pure latex rubber mattress pad for a full size bed. I cut it with a bread knife and, presto, I had two pure latex mattresses for my children. The hardest part was sewing a zipper into a cover, and vacuuming up the latex mattress crumbs after I had cut the pad to the proper size. However, it only cost $136.00 each to build my own mattresses. $111.00 was for the… Read more »

lacie

I am trying to find a phone case for our galaxyS6 smart phone. Every phone case that I find is made from polycarbonate and TPU material. Please give me an alternative. Everyone I turn to has no answers. I already have a hormone imbalance so I really want to avoid the ones made with these materials

vin

Or check out blockitpocket.com

Friendly Advice

You’re already cooking youself and those around you with radiation from your dumbphone. Why worry about some toxic chemicals on the side?

Nate

I have a Fish Oil in a PETE1 bottle. Does that leach? And can chemicals leach into an oil more so than water? If I transfer the fish oil into a glass bottle will that help or the chemicals remain? Any other info would be appreciated. Thanks

Bill Pickersgill

Nate , you don’t need to waste money on fish oil , just eat the fish . Dark tuna fish has selenium in it which dampens or puts out any mercury or radiation , plus you get the protein and other nutrients when you eat the food .

And the only acceptable number to hold liquids in plastic containers is” 2. “

Dylan Voisard

Awesome plastics article by the way! Very researched and informative… nice to see someone cutting away at all the fat of the internets many avenues of misinformation!

It sounds a bit preachy, but people really do have a right to know the ways in which the regulatory agencies that are tasked with protecting the common interest of our health are allowing the industries of American capitalism to poison our lives, our fisheries, our environment and the wellbeing of the world–all for a dollar.

Dylan Voisard

Not sure if someone has mentioned it yet or not.. Didn’t make it through all the comments. Fungus based “plastics” (which how can I even call them plastics) are going to be our ticket out of this mess.

This is where plastics research may be leading in the end: sustainable, biodegradable, cheap, inert and 3D printable ;)

https://video.vice.com/en_us/video/fungus-the-plastic-of-the-future/55d349a52b68305332db7143?utm_source=mbfb

It’s a Vice News profile and it’s very very cool.

MC

On the subject of BPA Free vacuum sealer plastic bags, is the leaching potential of other chemicals equally concerning when sealing dried vegetables and other dried products? With the air having been removed and the contents being dry, does this remove the potential for leaching? Many Thanks!!!

Luka

no it doesn’t, as long as the plastic is touching the food, additives can freely move in and out of the basic polymer structure (source: my high school chemistry knowledge)

Miranda

Hello Beth,

I hope you are aware that drinking from stainless steel bottles can expose you to Chromium toxicity.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548197/

Ashton

I highly doubt any of the plastics are safe. They are just promoting those as safe that haven’t been outed in the media as unsafe yet. The health of the consumer is not a concern to the manufacturers. Check out this astounding account of plastics: https://highline.huffingtonpost.com/articles/en/welcome-to-beautiful-parkersburg/

Bill Pickersgill

” 2″ is the only acceptable number , and it’s has to be the soft plastic not the hard . Here’s how you can tell , your tongue will tell you which is better , put any other number against” 2″ of course the water should be chilled and do the experiment yourself . Better yet in the book of Job he said animals can teach us things , put a bowl of chilled water in front of a dog from water with the number 2 and any other number and the dog will pick the water from the number… Read more »

TheUnknown

I can’t believe you even own a cell phone if you’re genuinely concerned with something so small such as cell phone cases containing BPA. Cell phone radiation poses a much greater overall health risk than BPA. Basically, try to stop stressing over such little things, it just causes unnecessary stress.

Chaotic Night

if you don’t feel the need to worry about this that’s fine but you don’t have a right to tell other people how to feel. There is a such thing as dealing with some things and trying to limit your exposure in other ways. Everyone chooses to handle these kind of health issues different and you need to just respect that even if it doesn’t make sense to you. The truth is a lot of us for whatever reason do not want to give up our electronic devices but want to limit chemical exposure and other ways to make up… Read more »

sat kartar

looking to buy housebaot to live on and a few have replaced their steel tanks with proploylene water storage tanks…..Are they safe? not so sure although people who`ve bought them seem convinced!!

Rabi s

I was looking for an Ultra Filtration Membrane Filter which is BPA free and is biodegradable. Most of the commercially available filters are made of poly sulpone, poly-ether sulpone, polypropylene , which are known to leach BPA in the water it is supposed to filter. Any recommendations?

Justice

Wear cotton or leather gloves. There is a small thing called “History” that I think might help People remove plastic and other toxins from their lives. What did people use on the 1930’s or 1950’s? Alot of things can be found at a second hand store. Glass, wood, some metals or cotton sheets, etc. Quite being a slave to plastics because it’s making kids gay or confused about their gender (look at the crocodiles) that’s a fact that people in the industry would kill to suppress. Hey good luck.

Olive

This is not a rant towards you, but towards the way things have been established in our world in the last century. I’m about to have a baby and I’ve been researching all the things I thought I was doing right a bit more in depth and seeing how far I actually am from living chemical free. Everything is bottled in plastic. And don’t even get me started on the mattress I bought that I thought was certified to be safe, which I come to realize is a completely bullshit certification. WHY IS THIS SO HARD!? I feel like I’m… Read more »

Marcus Gitterle

Olive, I feel the same way, and I’m an MD whom people often turn to to answer exactly this sort of question. My stance is shifting further and further from accepting the validity of these (often manipulated) “certifications,” toward a more basic suspicion of anything material or additive that comes into contact with my kids. If were were having another baby right now, I would be hypervigilant all the time, and would probably want to use only glass, stainless steel, and so forth, for mom and baby. Breast feeding only, with avoidance of milk storage as much as possible, and… Read more »

annieb

I am highly sensitized to plastic. I had a systemic allergic reaction that left me very sick. I have lost 37 pounds and suffer daily. My doctor at one of the top medical facilities in the USA did not document that the reaction happened 1 hour after I was exposed to short cured dental acrylic. I was in the emergency room within hours. How can I get him to correctly document? I was sent to him because of the life- threatning reactions I have to plastics and he didn’t even address my severe health issues. I can’t I can’t get… Read more »

Deb

AnnieB: you can’t.

You can’t get another person to tell the truth … unless you’re a crackerjack lawyer I suppose. Even then, it can be iffy ….

With new “diseases” like environmental and chronic conditions, up-to-date doctors know that your diagnosis should be based on your experiences, not theirs.

Canada has been a leader in this emerging field. Check out the Integrated Chronic Care Centre in Nova Scotia, found here: http://www.nshealth.ca/content/integrated-chronic-care-service-iccs … and all the best to you.

kristen

Im sorry this is such a late response, I just came across this article and convo. I hope you were able to figure out a way to report your reaction. If not, the FDA has a way where individuals can fill out a form online and submit it. Just thought I’d let you know!

Lynne

Don’t forget porcelain. My babies drank water from a teaspoon when newborn and by the age of 2-3 months could drink from a porcelain or china cup if they need other than breast milk- you know the ones with Peter Rabbit on. Babies are quite capable there can be nothing worse than sticking a dummy in their mouth or a teat from a bottle or the plastic nozzle from a none spill cup with spout. It’s not necessary – just spend some time with your little one and hold the cup to their lips and let them drink instead of… Read more »

youhurtmyears

Just stop. If you have a better solution, then work on it. If you don’t, then who are you griping at? We all grew up living with worse plastics and our parents even worse. I’m still here, you’re still here, Marcus Gitterle is still here and we’re all healthy (well, I am at least). Some of this stuff IS bad, but there are no links that SPECIFICALLY tie the use of some baby cup you sipped on 30 years ago and any disease you may get now or in the future. It could be genetic, it could be from some… Read more »

Chaotic Night

Agreed, it’s super frustrating to try and live more organic and chemical free. It shouldn’t be this hard to live as nature intended if one wants too. Humanity’s drive to create is admirable, but progress should NOT come at the expense of health. Every chemical and material manufactured should be tested, and clearly labeled with possible health concerns so people can avoid them if they want to. And chemical free options should be actively supported by those such as the FDA and other government establishments that have influence in industry. Perhaps they can give out grants to companies that are… Read more »

IrekJanek

This is a great post (btw I love the blog address too). I have been avoiding plastics for as long as I can remember, sadly it is unrealistic to eliminate them completely from our life. The one thing that we can do is to eliminate them as much as possible from our food handling, water bottle is a great start.

BPA arrgh

How do you know stainless steel is safe? Most of those bottles come from China and they are notorious for miss use of metals

IrekJanek

I could never be 100% sure of all of them, but in my review there are a few that I’m about 99% sure. Personally I trust and use Klean Kanteen w/ bamboo cap. It is made from the same material that most of food industry cooking equipment manufacturers are using for their products.

Joseph Frost

Stainless steel leaches too. The only truly safe material to use is clean glass made without lead.