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April 12, 2011

BPA-Free Does Not Mean Safe. Most Plastics Leach Hormone-Disrupting Chemicals.

 

Which plastics are safe?  I get that question all the time. The Internet is full of charts listing the numbers of the various types of plastic and explaining which ones are safe and which ones are not.  Supposedly, #2 (high density polyethylene), #4 (low density polyethylene), and #5 (polypropylene) are safe, right?  Does that mean the lid on my travel mug is safe?  It’s #5 polypropylene.

stainless steel travel mug with polypropylene lid

So is the sport cap on Michael’s Klean Kanteen water bottle.

Klean Kanteen water bottle with plastic sport cap

We’re supposed to avoid plastics #3 (PVC), #6 (polystyrene), and #7 (polycarbonate). Polycarbonate is the plastic that is made from the chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA). And BPA has a bad rap because it’s a hormone-disruptor. Walk down the aisles of any drug store these days, and you’ll find rows of plastic products labelled BPA-Free.  BPA-Free water bottles…

BPA-free water bottle

Baby bottles…

BPA-free baby bottle

Pacifiers…

BPA-free pacifier

In fact, entire shelves of baby products are labelled BPA-free.  Are they safe?

BPA-free baby products

Plastic #1 (polyethylene terephthalate), the type of plastic that disposable water bottles are made of, is not made with BPA either. Is it okay to drink from?

cases of bottled water

My response: we can’t be sure any plastic is safe as long as we don’t know what chemicals are in the plastic and as long as those chemicals have not been tested.  I’ve said this over and over again.  And I’ve pointed out chemical additives that have been found to leach from “safe” plastics like polypropylene.

Now, a University of Texas study published last month in Environmental Health Perspectives confirms that hormone-disrupting chemicals leach from almost all plastics, even BPA-free plastics.

That study?  Is 33 pages.  I read the whole thing, so you don’t have to.

BPA is not the only chemical with Estrogenic Activity

BPA concerns us because it has Estrogenic Activity (EA), meaning it mimics the hormone estrogen in the body. According to the study authors, chemicals with EA have been linked to all kinds of health problems, including

early puberty in females, reduced sperm counts, altered functions of reproductive organs, obesity, altered sex-specific behaviors, and increased rates of some breast, ovarian, testicular, and prostate cancers.

Theorizing that BPA was not the only EA chemical, the authors of the study tested 455 everyday products of all different kinds of plastic from various retail sources to determine if they had estrogenic effects. Products included food wrap, deli containers, hard or flexible packaging, plastic bags, baby bottles, and reusable plastic water bottles. Most of these products were BPA-free.  But what other chemicals were in them?  Just like you and I, the researchers didn’t know.  We are, after all, talking about the plastics industry and their secrets.

The exact chemical composition of almost any commercially available plastic part is proprietary and not known. A single part may consist of 5-30 chemicals, and a plastic item containing many parts (e.g., a baby bottle) may consist of 100 or more chemicals, almost all of which can leach from the product, especially when stressed.

So, to test the products they had gathered, the researchers first extracted chemicals from the various plastic products using different solvents to mimic the types of foods/beverages the plastics might contain, and then they exposed those extracted plastic chemicals to MCF-7 cells, a type of human breast cancer cell that is receptive to estrogen. If the cells multiplied in the presence of the leached plastic chemicals, the researchers knew those chemicals were estrogenic and therefore potentially harmful to humans.

Their finding? Almost all of the plastic products tested leached EA chemicals.

Almost all commercially available plastic products we sampled, independent of the type of resin, product, or retail source, leached chemicals having reliably-detectable EA, including those advertised as BPA-free. In some cases, BPA-free products released chemicals having more EA than BPA-containing products.

Stressed Out Plastic is Even Worse

Realizing that plastics are more likely to leach chemicals when exposed to various stressors like heat or light, the researchers also tested the products after subjecting them to UV radiation (mimicking the effect of sunlight), wet heat (as in a dishwasher), and microwave radiation. As you might expect, there was more leaching of EA from stressed plastic products than from unstressed ones. In fact, in some cases, products with no detectable EA levels when unstressed were found to release EA chemicals after being roughed up a bit. Wouldn’t you?

The Point: it’s not enough for a company to test its products in an unstressed environment.  Only by exposing plastic products to the kinds of stressors it will be subjected to in real life can we know for sure whether it will leach EA chemicals or not.

Bio-Based Plastics Like PLA are Not Exempt

PLA is a kind of compostable plastic made from starch, usually corn. It’s generally touted by its manufacturers as safe simply because it doesn’t come from petroleum. So guess what. 71% of all the PLA samples tested were found to leach EA chemicals as well.

The Point: just because a plastic is made from plants doesn’t make it safe.

It’s in the Additives

The researchers also tested “barefoot” polymers, meaning pellets of the basic plastic before any other chemicals have been added to it.  And while a few of these barefoot plastics (#2, #4, and #5) did not leach EA chemicals by themselves, nearly all commercial products made from these plastics did.   It’s those darned secret additives!

The Point: it’s not enough for a company to tell you that a certain type of plastic (#2, #4, #5) is safe.  Without knowing what additives are in it, we don’t know what could be leaching out.

Some BPA Replacements are WORSE than BPA

The researchers tested baby bottles made from PES (polyethersulfone), a new plastic being used to replace BPA in hard plastic bottles.  Among others, Born Free brand bottles are made from PES.  What did they find?  Some PES baby bottles released more EA chemicals than those with BPA in them!

The researchers also tested water bottles made from PETG, a copolyester like the new Eastman Tritan which has replaced BPA water bottles.  Again, EA chemicals were found to leach from those bottles as well.

As for our good old #1 PET disposable water/soda bottles?  Big time EA leaching.

The Point: be skeptical of new plastics being developed to replace harmful ones.  And remain skeptical of old plastics too.

Are There Any Safe Plastics?

One of the study researchers works for a company called PlastiPure, which is working to develop EA-free plastics.  To do that, the company hopes to create an EA-free supply chain, requiring that all the chemicals that are added to plastics be certified EA-free as well.  Their WaterGeeks plastic water bottle is advertised as EA-free.

I had a conversation with Brent Meikle from PlastiPure last year.  I asked why go to all the trouble to develop a “safe” plastic bottle when they could just promote stainless steel or glass instead.  Brent’s feeling was that it was not practical to expect everyone to switch to stainless steel bottles, especially those involved in sports, and that plastics are here to stay, so they should be safe.

Whether or not the new EA-free plastics are safe or whether they will turn out to have other harmful health effects, the fact remains that like all petroleum-based plastics, they are not biodegradable and will cause harm to the environment when not handled properly.  I hope that PlastiPure will continue to focus on making durable plastic products rather than single-use disposables.

As for me, I’m going to stick to my stainless steel travel mug and water bottle.  No plastic water bottles for me.  But as for my plastic lid?  If it has to be plastic, I’d rather it were EA-free.

The Point: we can only act on the information we have at the moment.  Ask questions.  Remain skeptical.  But keep an open mind.

 

This post is included in the March 2012 Green Moms Carnival on toxic chemicals hosted at Groovy Green Livin’.



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61 comments
KinderOrganic
KinderOrganic

This is a brilliant post, would it be okay to share it on Kinder Organic's blog? We have a post about BPA free products, this would compliment it as it covers other areas that we haven't talked about. We would place a link to your blog and give you full credit! Kindly let me know if that's okay with you? Here is our blog: http://www.kinderorganic.com/blog 

Anahi
Anahi

About a year ago I bought a glass bottle that I loved (bkr). Unfortunately, I broke it and I didn't buy it again. I did decide to buy another glass bottle from another brand (takeya), but one day I thought to myself: well yes, the bottle is made of glass , but the cap is plastic! Shortly after this, I watched a video about a study like the one mentioned here (it might be the same one) and now I feel bad using my "safer" takeya glass bottle. Does anyone have any suggestions of glass bottle that don't have plastic caps? I definitely want to invest in one, no matter how expensive. I was also thinking of using mason jars, but I am not sure if the material put on the lids to prevent things from leaking is plastic or what. I really need to do more research into this, but if anyone knows I would appreciate if you could tell me. 

adrianaeloisa
adrianaeloisa

I am wondering what you think of HPP or High Pressure Processing and the effects it has as a stressor on plastics. Pressure can of course cause heat and so I'm curious. I don't know of any studies that have been done myself. I, myself, choose not to use plastic for my family and this most importantly included my child. But, I'm concerned about this new craze of HPP and the touted health benefits of the products that are getting packaged inside of these bottles exposed to these extreme pressures. Drinks like "raw" juice and coconut water come packaged this way and I would like to inform my otherwise aware friends. Have you seen this Mother Jones article. PlastiPure is featured prominently...http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/03/tritan-certichem-eastman-bpa-free-plastic-safe

marinamelissa
marinamelissa

Have heard acrylic is safe - no leaching into water/food - what does your research show??

Water Dilemma
Water Dilemma

Hi, thank you, Beth for this.  I can't decide between keeping my countertop stainless steel water filter from MultiPure or getting a reverse osmosis instead.  Plastic vs Fluoride is my dilemma.  The reverse osmosis is all plastic except for the last container.  MultiPure customer service says the NSF tested their plastic and it does not leach.  After reading your blog, I really have a hard time believing that.  What's worse -plastic or fluoride?  Our water company says we have .84 ppm Fluoride in our water (Key West, FL).  Thank you!

Deb
Deb

I attended a school event last night, and had a disposable bottle of water. Only after drinking it did I notice the neck of the bottle was tinted a transluscent black.  !!!! What has happened?

Concerned Mom
Concerned Mom

Hi, great article, thank you. Here's another HUGE issue to consider. The nuclear industry has tons and tons of radioactive waste material siting at each and every one of our our 100 nuclear reactors that can cause cancer, birth defects, etc at every single nuclear power plant around the country. The gov is allowing the nuclear industry to mix that stuff it what the industry considers "trace amounts" with supposedly "no ill health effects" into things made with metal from belt buckles, to forks, knives, and spoons, to who knows what else. Could even be the water bottles and the inside of our new fancy dishwashers too! It is insane that the gov would support this but it is going on. Stainless steel should not be radioactive. Stainless steel should be certified nuclear free.

I am struggling to find a way to transport my kids' food as I don't think school food is that great. Any suggestions? I do think that glass is best but is it not practical for little kids.

Jacob
Jacob

Hi. I'm looking for a sprouting system, but most are plastic. Would a hemp bag leach any chemicals?

Kathi G
Kathi G

I am new to this quest to go plastic-free and I am having trouble with finding what I really want to know....Where do people go to get their drinking (and bathing?) water that hasn't already been exposed to alot of plastic before it even hits their water bottle?  everyone is so concerned with the vessel that they drink from.. but what about the delivery system?  Our plumbing is PVC... they plumbing at the Watermill Express (reverse osmosis station) is all plastic and the storage tanks are polyethylene.. and here in florida that whole station is exposed to alot of heat... You can't really buy water at the market in glass bottles (except a a scant few and very expensive european waters but those only come in single serving sizes, not practical at all) and even if you did,  where was it before it got put into the bottle?  Does this come down to me having to have my own reverse osmosis at home and if I did that,  does that guarantee no fluoride, other toxins including plastic, antibiotics, pesticides and the like?  I am looking for more info but it seems to be hard to find.... As I said,  everyone is so focused on the actual cup or bottle that they put to their lips and by the time you put your water into THAT glass or stainless vessel it may have already had plenty of plastic leached into it.... ??  Any input on that?


Jessica N
Jessica N

I had twins 2 years ago--preemies--and I've become more and more aware of the plastics in our environment since then. I just realized that our DISHWASHER tub is entirely plastic, and God only knows what's in that! I wish there was some sort of home testing kit to test for plastic chemical residue. I don't know if my non-plastic items are being coated with chemicals with every wash or if it's not something to worry about. Ugh.

Kitten
Kitten

I really appreciate this post.  I've been leary of the 'bpa free' bottles, simply on the grounds that if it sounds too good to be true it probably is.  What are the chances, really, that plastics companies just happened to invent a brand-new but totally safe plastic as soon as the old ones became vilified?  Seemed far more likely that these 'new' plastics would have just as many problems, and now I have an easy-to-read guide to why and how to share with people. 

Olivia
Olivia

Beth, Yes, babies need to suck. It's part of their development. Some older infants are fed by spoon or cup and this is often done in orphanages in the developing world because it's harder to come by baby bottles with nipples. But for little babies it's a complete mess. For babies who need to be bottle-fed for whatever reason, it's not all that hard to use glass bottles (I'm doing it now) and silicone or rubber nipples. But it's true...we don't need all those plastic sippy cups. This would be a great blog post BTW: disposable sippy cups. Just go to a big baby store and take some pictures. Some companies like Kleen Kanteen have come out with plastic sippy spouts for their small bottles. Too bad the spout has to be plastic of course, but at least the liquid is sitting in stainless steel.

Jennifer
Jennifer

Thank you for this great summary Beth! I'm printing out the Texas study and putting it my file as well as your blog. And @Laura -- I'm printing that one out too, thanks for linking us to it. BTW, I've got the PPC hooked up with a section or 2 of writing students in the fall--the students will be creating an electronic toolkit to for university student activists. Maybe you could talk to them some time over Adobe Connect or Skype? Thank you again (and again!) for everything you do -- your voice is an inspiration to all of us! <3 Jennifer

Dianna Cohen
Dianna Cohen

Beth, You are a great citizen of earth. I love you and really appreciate the time that you take to craft intriguing, content full and informative blog posts. Thank you<3 Dianna

Betsy (Eco-novice)
Betsy (Eco-novice)

Thank you for reading the study in its entirety. I posted a bit on how to avoid BPA and steps we've taken as a family to avoid plastic in general (see link below). Personally, I wish there were a safe durable plastic alternative (with all ingredients disclosed and no crazy additives that has undergone rigorous testing) for when one absolutely cannot find a viable alternative. For now, I'm just trying to use less plastic.

Molly
Molly

Thank goodness for scientific proof. All of my colleagues have been looking at me like I'm a nut when I say that I don't microwave plastics or put them in the dishwasher. It will be nice to be able to cite a study instead of just telling them that I don't trust plastics to not leach icky things into my food.

Kathryn
Kathryn

Thank you for clearing up my confusion about which bottles are lined with plastic. Your blog is such a wealth of information and inspiration. So glad you're here.

Nubby Tongue
Nubby Tongue

Great post as always! Thanks for all your hard work, Beth. Srsly.

Sarah Franklin
Sarah Franklin

Thank you for this, I wouldn't have been able to get through the whole article myself with my two kiddos! Plus it makes it easier to share with others.

debe
debe

Klean Kanteen has listened to consumers questions and suggestions and now offers a bottle with a bamboo lid. I think avoiding pacifiers altogether is a good idea. Studies show They have and can have a detrimental effect on vocal as in language development. As for baby bottles: Obvious first choice should be breast. Next is human milk fed with a spoon or a cup...Why would formula need a bottle? SIppy cups? No point really- have no clue why they are believed to be necessary. Plastic teethers ?? Again most stuff marketed to parents for babes and children is this plastic crap that truly is unnecessary. I am not really blaming here the parents- We all grew up with this stuff and it is so very ingrained. I am just kind of weird and have never liked having lots of stuff except books, so it has been easier for me to continue to pare down some things - Some things I have not- Wish I could find alternatives...

Jenny Gillespie
Jenny Gillespie

Thank you for your excellent summary. I plan to share this. I worry, though, when I see an author-researcher of a scientific study with a vested interest, as this author working for PlastiPure seems to have. Scientific research, as we've all learned, is objective only in its finest moments. I also wonder if these particular researchers are purposely overlooking other groups of harmful plastics additives, focusing only on the EA's simply because this will bring their products to market more quickly. It's a start, but only helpful to consumers as an early step toward possible future safety when food and plastics must mingle; not a definitive last word.

Tracey
Tracey

Wow! Thanks for writing such a succinct and powerful entry. I am going to link this article to my site and send it out to my clients. This backs up my assertion that no plastic is safe. My scientific friends always said that plastic has plasticizers and plasticizers are all probably endocrine disrupting. If we woke up tomorrow and there were no plastics: Local goods would be most affordable. Goods from far away would be expensive and treasured. Packaging would be precious. And the reduction in brain damage, cancers and immune diseases would change our schools, our health care, our lives. I mail things in glass containers daily. It costs more, breaks more often. That's why my mission is primarily to teach people how to make their own stuff locally. For me it's been worth it in every way to give up new plastic. Thanks always, Beth, Tracey

BethTerry
BethTerry moderator

@annonymous  Hi.  Stainless steel water bottles do not contain BPA.  Aluminum water bottles, which is what they tested in that study, do.  We have known for a long time that all aluminum bottles and food cans are lined with BPA or other type of plastic.  Stainless steel does not corrode and does not need to be lined.  Klean Kanteen is a good example of a safe bottle.

BethTerry
BethTerry moderator

@marinamelissa  I don't know if it can leach or not.  It would depend on the conditions it is subjected to.  And since manufacturers don't have to disclose the additives in their plastics, we can't necessarily know that any plastic is safe.  

Kathi G
Kathi G

@Water Dilemma Hey I am having the same issue and no one seems to have info or any ideas or answers.... (the dilemma betn. plastic and fluoride) both problems seem to be endocrine disruptors and cause issues with thyroid and cancer etc etc. from what I can see...but reverse osmosis IS the only thing that will remove fluoride... but nowhere can I find any info about what will remove plastic from water, does anyone know if there is a filtration system that removes plastic from water?  Because if there is, I will do both!

BethTerry
BethTerry moderator

Hi. I'm not an expert on fluoride. I can only tell you that we go ahead and drink our water straight from the tap. But if you're concerned about fluoride, you should probably filter it. You may have plastic pipes in your house, anyway.

Concerned Mom
Concerned Mom

Here is the other thing, the proprietary thing is horrible. It is going on with the ingredients in our food supply too Made/mixed in the USA which is supposed to make everyone feel like the actual ingredients are from the USA too. NOT TRUE! Food manufacturers have admitted they are sourcing from places like China for our food supply--horrible food safety standards there--as well as near the Fukushima nuclear power plant--the nuclear power plant that has been leak HUGE amounts of contamination into the environment for 2.5 years. That stuff causes all minds of problems from cancers, to genetic mutations causing everything from birth defects to DNA mutations that cause from that point forward inherited cancers, diabetes, heart defects, and allergies. Anything that is in a box, bottle, can or dried is fair game for thIs possibility. Made in USA is the only thing we get on the labeling but the reality is the ingredients are coming from all kinds of other places. Which ingredients are coming from these places? We have absolutely no idea so we can't avoid it. You ask places like Kellogg's, PEPSICo, General Mills--they own most of our food supply through all the conventional and organic brands the own--to please tell you where each of the ingredients are from in your favorite product they will refuse to tell you citing proprietary info--none of your business--stop asking questions just eat up. Check out www dot newsforyourfamily.blogspot.com click on corporate responses on the right hand side of the page. I was shocked beyond belief when I learned about all of that. Try calling the companies yourself. They will try to trick you with their first response "we are proud that all of our products are Made in the USA! Don't be fooled. Say" No, that is not what I asked. Where are the actually ingredients I am putting in my body from?" They will then probably put you on hold for a minute or two and then they will come back with something like, "Sorry, that's proprietary information. We can't tell you that." Call them yourself. See what you get.

Plastic-Free Ericka Moderator
Plastic-Free Ericka Moderator moderator

@Jacob I'm not very familiar with sprouting but I would think a hemp bag would be safe as long as it's organic and HMO free. 

BethTerry
BethTerry moderator

Hi Jessica.  The dishwasher is definitely a consideration.  Ours is completely plastic inside too.  We still use it...  we don't have kids and have decided that we just can't worry about exposure to every bit of plastic.  We're not buying new plastic but still using the plastic we already have.  But your mileage may vary.  You may want to hand wash.  I actually use plain baking soda for the dishes that I do hand wash.  It works great.

BethTerry
BethTerry moderator

 @lukeyg Drink out of plastic if you're not concerned about chemicals leaching out.  I will use the same safe stainless steel water bottle and travel mug for the rest of my life... assuming I don't lose them!

lukeyg
lukeyg

Raychelle, we looked at the Bobble Bottle, but from memory it is PET plastic - so it would be the same as reusing any bottled water bottle you buy off the supermarket shelf. We have been looking into bottles a lot, and I mean A LOT!

 

While we want to cut down on plastic in the environment and obviously avoid any health issues, we also struggle with the steel and aluminium bottles as they have such a heavy environmental foot print in the production process (and some still contain BPA http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/332291/title/Metal_water_bottles_may_leach_BPA).

 

That doesn't give you much of a solution but I suppose some other factors to consider.

Beth Terry
Beth Terry

Raychelle, I wouldn't touch that with a ten foot pole for all the reasons I listed in this post. And more. Plus, it's not eliminating plastic bottle waste -- just slowing down the process.

Beth Terry
Beth Terry

Debe, you're right. For those who don't know about Klean Kanteen's new plastic-free lid, I wrote about it here: http://myplasticfreelife.com/2011/01/klean-kanteen-introduces-new-reflect-plastic-free-stainless-steel-water-bottle/ But the new Reflect bamboo cap doesn't solve the problem for people who insist on having a sport cap with a spout to suck on. You and I don't need that, but there are those who wouldn't use a non-plastic bottle without one. I've never heard of feeding an infant with a spoon or cup. Is that something that's done? I don't have kids, so I don't know, but I thought that the action of sucking was a natural instinct for newborn babies.

Beth Terry
Beth Terry

Jenny, I totally agree with you, and that's my concern... that there are other harmful chemicals besides those with Estrogenic Activity that we have to be careful of. BUt I'm glad that at least this research is being done because most industry research focuses on proving how safe something is rather than how harmful it is. Yes, these guys obviously have a vested interest, but I think their interest, in this case, is also our interest.

Reality Check 1
Reality Check 1

@Kathi G @Water Dilemma You''ll have to watch out Reverse osmosis also removes all the minerals and other benifits from drinking water in the first place. I asked about this to an industrial chemist and he said "stay away from them", as when the water you drink that has been through a R/O machine has had everything stipped from it. So when you drink the water that has everything stripped from it the minerals it's suppose to add to your body is then leached out of your body.

Water Dilemma
Water Dilemma

@BethTerry Thank you!  I went with the Reverse Osmosis with MultiPure.  Come to find out, the last filter in the system is the one I already have, so at least it gets filtered through the stainless steel container one last time.  I'm asking NSF if there are any filters that are certified to filter out BPA, etc., because it's not listed, from what I can see, on their website as one of the contaminants they check.  Thanks for the blog!  It helped a lot!

BethTerry
BethTerry moderator

@lukeyg Yes aluminum is problematic because it, like metal food cans, always contains some kind of plastic lining. Stainless steel and glass are safe and make up for the impacts off production if you keep them and reuse them enough times.

lukeyg
lukeyg

@BethTerry thanks, do you have any stats on how many times stainless steel bottles need to be reused to balance their production footprint?

Trackbacks

  1. Is it possible to develop a long-term food storage system and NOT use plastics? « Living My Values says:

    [...] disruptive than BPA.  Rather than re-tell the information here, you can check this out over at My Plastic Free Life.  (Beth Terry’s blog is my go-to source for information about trying to reduce the amount of [...]

  2. [...] BPA-Free Does Not Mean Safe. Most Plastics Leach Hormone-Disrupting Chemicals. from My Plastic-free Life: More, more, more on plastics! (I love her blog and her commitment to being plastic-free!) [...]

  3. Food Storage Update « Living My Values says:

    [...] Terry of the blog (formerly known as Fake Plastic Fish) My Plastic Free Life made this post about BPA-Free Does Not Mean Safe.  In my frustration I posted this and included a link to Beth’s post.  Well, I had no idea [...]

  4. [...] To continue: Plastic is plastic! Just because the manufacturer of the reusuable bottle, or the case of water bottles you purchase, tells you there isn’t any BPA (bisphenol-A, a cancer causing chemical in pretty much every plastic that doesn’t specifically say otherwise, as well as in can linings and thermal receipt paper) in their product, they DON’T HAVE TO tell you what else is in there. Seriously. So that means you really SHOULDN’T reuse these bottles. Heating the plastic generally releases the chemicals into the water you’ll eventually be drinking. More on this: http://myplasticfreelife.com/2011/04/bpa-free-does-not-mean-safe-most-plastics-leach-hormone-disrupt… [...]

  5. [...] BPA-Free Does Not Mean Safe. Most Plastics Leach Hormone-Disrupting Chemicals from Beth Terry at My Plastic-free Life is kind of depressing if you think you’re making good choices by buying BPA-free plastics. [...]

  6. [...] Beth at My Plastic Free Live sheds some light on how BPA-Free Does Not Mean Safe. [...]

  7. [...] Think About It: Plastic food packaging (even BPA-free plastics) have toxins in them. Here’s an easy-to-read review. [...]

  8. […] Re: Plastic bags for quarantine I would avoid plastic for amphibians at all costs, simply because of the hormone disrupting properties of just about all plastics. Here's the study: Most Plastic Products Release Estrogenic Chemicals: A Potential Health Problem That Can Be Solved And an article to break it down: BPA-Free Does Not Mean Safe. Most Plastics Leach Hormone-Disrupting Chemicals. :: My Plastic-free Li… […]

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