The blog formerly known as   Fake Plastic Fish

March 8, 2017

Is Your Laundry Polluting the Ocean with Microfibers?

A month ago, a reader named Ida left the following comment in the “100 Steps” section of this website:

For your Clothes section you never mention that the plastic clothes we have release high levels of plastic microfibers in every wash! This is pretty new knowledge, but hugely important as we cannot as of today find a way to remove from the sea. So when asked, I usually tell people to stop buying fleece, acrylic etc, but also to handwash what they have, which at least might lessen the problem… :)

I was as surprised as she was.  I thought for sure I’d blogged about microfiber pollution.  So I checked.  As it turns out, I addressed the topic in the updated edition of my book, but I never posted about it on this site.  Fortunately, the Story of Stuff Project has not been slacking like me.  They have just released a brand new video and campaign called The Story of Microfibers.  It explains what happens when we launder synthetic clothing and what we can do to hold clothing manufacturers accountable.

Please watch this short video:

What’s Wrong With Microfibers?

Microfibers are released into wastewater when we wash synthetic fabrics, fabrics such as polyester, acrylic, lycra, spandex, nylon, and any other textiles made from long-chain man-made polymers.  All fabrics release microfibers in the wash, but the microfibers from synthetics are problematic because they don’t biodegrade.  Instead, they add to the ever increasing problem of microplastic pollution in the world’s oceans and other bodies of water.  According to a 2012 article posted on the Algalita Marine Research Foundation website:

Although we don’t usually think of polyester fabrics as plastic per se, polyester is nonetheless a plastic material synthesized from crude oil and natural gas. And, like other plastics, polyester is a long polymer chain, making it non-biodegradable in any practical human scale of time, especially in the ocean because of the cooler temperatures.

In fact, as long ago as 2011, we learned that microfibers from laundry have been washing up on the world’s beaches.  According to the Algalita article (emphasis mine):

As reported in a November 2011 issue of the journal Environmental Science & Technology, a single polyester item can produce more than 1,900 fibers in one washing. Every article tested produced more than 100 microfibers per liter of wastewater, and the worst offenders were the fleeces.

The researchers also provided strong evidence linking polyester from laundering to ocean pollution. They found that every one of 18 shorelines sampled across the globe was fouled with microplastic fibers, predominantly of polyester. The shorelines of more densely populated areas or where sewage is discharged were the most contaminated.

Microplastic pollution from any source (microfibers from laundry, microbeads from personal care products, pre-production plastic resin pellets (aka nurdles) from industry, or plastic particles from the breakdown of larger plastic objects) is a problem in our oceans because it mixes with the zooplankton (the lowest level of the food chain), which is then consumed by fish, making its way up to the food we eat.  A 2015 study (PDF) found that one in four food fish from markets in California and Indonesia had detectable plastic particles in their guts.  And a 2013 study (PDF) found that because plastics are lipophilic and can attract oil-based persistent organic pollutants such as PCB, ingested plastics can accumulate and transfer those pollutants to the flesh of the sea animals we consume.

While microfibers from laundry are not the only source of microplastic pollution, they are part of the problem, a part we can reduce.

Holding Manufacturers Responsible for Microfiber Pollution

So, if we have known about the problem of microfibers since 2011, why haven’t we done anything about it?  Ecologist Mark Browne, who ran the 2011 study, reached out to companies like Nike, Polartec, and even Patagonia, which makes fleece and other polyester clothing out of recycled plastics, but those companies would not listen.  It wasn’t until the issue started getting a lot of press that Patagonia commissioned its own study on microfiber pollution, a study that was finally published in 2016, five years after Mark Browne’s first study was published.

Patagonia’s conclusion?  All clothing has an environmental impact.  (True.)  But in the case of synthetics, we should wash them less often, use front loading machines, and buy a special bag to trap the fibers.  That’s my simplistic interpretation of the company’s June 20, 2016, blog post.  Clearly, those steps are not enough to solve the problem if apparel companies are going to continue to manufacture and sell synthetic clothing.  And those steps place the burden of reducing microfiber pollution on their customers rather than changing the way their clothing is made.

Last month, Patagonia published an update on their site, announcing that they have begun a new study to help them investigate ways to minimize fiber shedding by improving fabric construction.

The second study, which has only just begun, is being conducted in partnership with North Carolina State University with the goals of better understanding characteristics in fibers and fabrics that lead to microfiber release and developing a rapid test method to assess the potential of fabrics to shed during laundering—both of which will help Patagonia and our industry conduct R&D for new materials moving forward.

This is a great step, but why did it take the company so long to address the problem with the construction of their clothing?  And if Patagonia, a company with a core mission to protect the environment, has taken so long to react, imagine how long it will take mainstream companies.  We don’t have time to wait.  We must act now.

Take Action to Hold Companies Accountable for Microfiber Pollution

Please sign The Story of Stuff’s petition to stop microfiber plastic pollution.  By signing, you call on clothing brands to:

  1. Publicly acknowledge the seriousness of the pollution threat that microfibers pose
  2. Commit to investments of time and resources to investigate and test potential Solutions
  3. Share what they learn with each other and the public.

Once you and thousands of other Story of Stuff Community members sign on to this petition, we’ll present your signatures to the largest clothing brands in the world, inviting them to attend a summit organized by the Story of Stuff Project. The summit will assess research, propose solutions, and generate timelines for systemic action to solve microfiber pollution. We will also ask these companies for specific commitments so that we can objectively gauge progress and engage in serious and constructive conversations aimed at ending microfiber pollution.

Read more about why The Story of Stuff feels this is the right approach (rather than simply relying on consumer behavior changes or better washing machine technology.)

Buy Clothing With Less Plastic

While the microfiber problem is not going to be solved by a few of us eschewing synthetic clothing, I want you to know that there are options out there for plastic-free or reduced-plastic clothing.  In my experience, the hardest things to find are options for underwear, athletic wear, and tights.  In my next post, I will share a few of the clothing brands I have found that are either synthetic-free or contain just a fraction of synthetic materials.  In the meantime, check out my 2014 post “Running with Less Plastic” for a few ideas.

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16 Comments on "Is Your Laundry Polluting the Ocean with Microfibers?"

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I’d be very interested in knowing precisely which fabrics polluted the oceans with microplastic. Polyester, ok. So no buying polyester anymore, or “blends” with polyester in them. Then on to acrylic, nylon, … and what about bamboo viscose? Is bamboo viscose a good guy or a bad guy in this? I’d really love to see a breakdown list of fabrics, so as to know which to buy and which to avoid.

Thanks for writing about Microfiber and how it pollutes our water.  It is important to educate people about what is going on. One thing it does address is an alternative to existing polyester.  People like what polyester has to offer and without an alternative they will not stop buying it.   I have been working on the alternative fabric for the last 3 years.  I wanted to create a better outdoor pant for hiking, biking and everyday casual wear. Less is more, let’s let our clothes be more versatile and less harmful.  So I developed a polyester free, moisture wicking… Read more »

Finally someone who is doing something to make a real change. This is what we need. Not endless lists of what we can not do. Congratulations and best of luck with you new product.

It would be helpful if this article could also list some common fibers to look for that aren’t harmful, as well as ones to avoid, so that I know what to look for on a clothing label.

While interesting, several points I picked up were; the micro fibers are in the gut of the fish which I do not eat. I am not worried about the quantity of PCB they may attract as I do not feel that the PCB contamination is of a large extent in the ocean. If it is we should not be eating the fish anyway. Fleece is the warmest clothing this side of wool and you can not afford to have all your clothing made out of wool. My waste goes into my septic which is 20 miles from the ocean. I… Read more »

“Ingested plastics can accumulate and transfer those pollutants to the flesh of the sea animals we consume”

the original article said that the micro plastics accumulate in the gut not the flesh. Though they may effect the fish health, I do not see how it will move from the gut into the flesh. There is no president for that movement.

What about buying used clothes with 95% cotton 5% synthetic? I feel that if I don’t buy it, someone else will and it won’t change anything.

My question is I really cant wear polyester anymore. I cant stand how it feels. I have been getting rid of most of my clothes and when I do buy its hemp or organic cotton and something I love and will use. I dont have alot of clothes. I really dont want alot of them. What should I do with the old clothes? If I donate them the cycle keeps going with microfibers going in the ocean. I dont know what a good solution is for the old clothes but its not donating and I hate putting things like clothes… Read more »

I wonder if having them recycled into carpet or something like that would be a solution? Some cities collect textiles for recycling.

It would be a short term solution but its like Beth said about we have to push manufacturers to change their offerings. Carpet wears out and then you have it going into a landfill. The only way to make a real difference in the oceans is for the system to change.